A Novel Measurement Method of the Emission Rules of Greenhouse Gases from Fertilized Soil Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry with Long Optical Pathby Guangdong Xiao, Daming Dong, Tongqing Liao, Ling Zheng

Spectroscopy Letters

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Year
2015
DOI
10.1080/00387010.2014.930754
Subject
Analytical Chemistry / Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics / Spectroscopy

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A Novel Measurement Method of the Emission Rules of

Greenhouse Gases from Fertilized Soil Based on Fourier

Transform Infrared Spectrometry with Long Optical

Path

Guangdong Xiaoab, Daming Donga, Tongqing Liaob & Ling Zhenga a National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing Academy of

Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, China b School of Electronic information Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, China

Published online: 11 Mar 2015.

To cite this article: Guangdong Xiao, Daming Dong, Tongqing Liao & Ling Zheng (2015) A Novel Measurement Method of the Emission Rules of Greenhouse Gases from Fertilized Soil Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry with Long Optical Path, Spectroscopy Letters: An International Journal for Rapid Communication, 48:8, 572-577, DOI: 10.1080/00387010.2014.930754

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00387010.2014.930754

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A Novel Measurement Method of the Emission Rules of

Greenhouse Gases from Fertilized Soil Based on Fourier

Transform Infrared Spectrometry with Long Optical Path

GUANGDONG XIAO1,2, DAMING DONG1, TONGQING LIAO2, and LING ZHENG1 1National Research Center of Intelligent Equipment for Agriculture, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences,

Beijing, China 2School of Electronic information Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, China

Received 23 January 2014, Accepted 31 May 2014

Farm soil is the main source of greenhouse gas emission. We developed an optical system for measuring nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from soil using infrared spectrometer and long optical path gas cell based on multi-reflecting mirrors. The spectral characteristics of nitrous oxide at 2198–2223 cm1 and of carbon dioxide at 2258–2283 cm1 were observed with the system. We studied the rules of greenhouse gas emission and found that nitrous oxide increased with soil moisture whereas carbon dioxide showed no obvious relationship with moisture. We also studied the diurnal variation rules of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from fertilized soil. These results are consistent to the previous results obtained with other analytical methods. The results indicate that the infrared spectroscopy with long optical path is an effective way to measure greenhouse gas emission from soil.

Keywords: FTIR, greenhouse gases, optical path, soil

Introduction

Greenhouse gases mainly include nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). [1–5] Agricultural soils are the most important sources of N2O emission. [6–8]

Because the infrared absorption capacity of N2O is 300 times that of CO2, [7] N2O emission process will destroy the protection umbrella of human survival, the ozone layer.[6,8] Therefore, yearly increasing N2O concentration should receive enough attention. N2O emission is closely related to soil humidity, whereas CO2 emission is not related to it. [6,9]

According to the variation rules of gas emission from different sites, N2O emission from soil during the daytime is higher than that at night and the lowest emission occurs at night.[10,11] Other researchers obtained different results of

CO2 emission from soil in different sites. [12,13] Many measurement methods for monitoring N2O, CO2, and CH4 emissions are available, such as mass spectroscopy and gas chromatography,[14] which require sample extraction and preconditioning procedures. Some measurement methods even require specific sensors.[15] In the static and dynamic chamber methods, the surface microclimate conditions change.[7,12] In the static CO2 absorption method, the amount of alkali should be determined in advance.[12] Briefly, these methods are complex and time-consuming.

Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) is commonly used to measure unknown gas compositions, including

N2O and CO2, because most of unknown gases have corresponding fingerprint characteristics in the middle infrared region. For instance, there are four middle infrared absorption bands for CO2. The strongest absorption band near 4.26 mm (2347 cm1) is the most useful wavenumber for measuring CO2. [16] Taquet et al.[17] made it possible to monitor continuously CO2 concentration in atmosphere and soil using FTIR and Raman spectra. A micrometeorological method was proposed by Kelliher et al.[18] to measure the N2O emission rate from grazed pasture at macroscale, which could not be used to measure gas emission in the small area of soil for the optical length defect. The most prominent problem for FTIR spectra is that the air temperature change along the optical path has tremendous interference with the determination of N2O concentration. [18] The micrometeorological method is complicated and tedious.[12]