Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Content of Methanol and Ethanol Extracts from Leaves of Rockrose (Cistus ladaniferus)
Mahassine Amensour & Esther Sendra &
José Angel Pérez-Alvarez & Nadia Skali-Senhaji &
Jamal Abrini & Juana Fernández-López
Published online: 9 May 2010 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010
Keywords Cistus ladaniferus . Antioxidant properties .
Polyphenols . Natural products
Plants have been used for years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. Many of these medicinal plants are also excellent sources for phytochemicals, many of which have potent antioxidant activities [1, 2]. Cistus ladaniferus L., a Cistaceae named rockrose and the most important Cistus species in the perfumery field, is an odorous shrub that grows wild in
Portugal, Spain, France (the Esterel massif), Italy (Sicily), and northern regions of Algeria and Morocco [3, 4]. This plant is widely used in herbal medicine and it is claimed to possess various physiological effects. Among the bioactive compounds present in plants, polyphenols and particularly flavonoids are widely appreciated for their potential beneficial health effects, like antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activities . Pharmacological studies on Cistus extracts reported that they have antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory , antiulcer , antiaggregant of platelets , hypotensive and spasmolytic activities . It is also commonly used as an antigastric agent by the local population of the North Morocco.
This specie is a strongly aromatic plant because of the high essential oil content in their leaves, flower, and fruit glands. The essential oil of Cistus ladaniferus is extremely complex. In some cases, up to 300 compounds have been detected by GC (gas chromatography), most of them being only present as traces . The GC chromatogram of the oil from C. ladaniferus var. maculatus from Morocco showed more than 50 components among which 30 were identified.
The main components were the monoterpenoids (bornyl acetate (5.5 %) and pinocarveol (7.7 %)), and sesquiterpenoid alcohols (viridiflorol (7.2 %) and ledol (3.5 %)) .
Moreover, this plant is rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds .
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is a major cause of food deterioration, affecting colour, flavour, texture and nutritional value . Antioxidants are of interest to the food industry, because they prevent rancidity [11, 12]. At the present time, the most commonly used antioxidants are butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propylgallate and tert-butyl hydroquinone. However, concern over the safety of synthetic antioxidants has increased consumers’ interest in natural antioxidants.
Therefore, there has been great interest in finding natural
M. Amensour :N. Skali-Senhaji : J. Abrini
Laboratory of Biology and Health,
Team Biotechnology and applied Microbiology,
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science,
Abdelmalek Essaadi University,
BP 2121, 93002 Tetouan, Morocco
E. Sendra : J. A. Pérez-Alvarez : J. Fernández-López
IPOA Research Group (REVIV-Generalitat Valenciana and UMH-1) Departmento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria,
Universidad Miguel Hernández,
Orihuela, Alicante, Spain
J. Fernández-López (*)
Departamento Tecnología Agroalimentaria,
Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela,
Universidad Miguel Hernández,
Ctra. Beniel Km 3.2,
Orihuela 03312 Alicante, Spain e-mail: email@example.com
Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2010) 65:170–178
DOI 10.1007/s11130-010-0168-2 antioxidants (plant extracts, lisozims, bacteriocins, chitosan, etc.) to replace the synthetic ones [11–13].
A great number of plants worldwide have proved to present a strong antioxidant activity and a powerful scavenger activity against free radicals [2, 14–19]. Plant antioxidants are composed of a broad variety of different substances like ascorbic acid and tocopherol, polyphenolic compounds, or terpenoids. The antioxidant activities of phenolics are mainly due to their redox properties that allow them to act as reducing agents, hydrogen donors and singlet oxygen quenchers. In addition, they have a metal chelation potential [16, 19, 20].
The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant activities of methanol and ethanol extracts of
Cistus ladaniferus. The extracts were investigated by several methods established for in vitro test, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, reducing power assay, thiobarbituric acid test (TBARS), 2,2 azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation decolorization assay and metal chelating assay. Because of the important roles of the total phenolics and total flavonoids as antioxidants, the amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts were also determined.
Both extracts were also analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry analysis (GC/MS) to identify the main components.
Materials and Methods
Cistus ladaniferus L. (Cistaceae) plant was collected from
Chefchaouen region (NW of Morocco) during the vegetation period and transported to the Laboratory of Biology and Health in the Abdelmalek Essaadi University. Collected plant materials were immediately dried in an oven (Selecta,
Barcelona, Spain) at 35 °C. The leaves of plants were separated from the steam, and ground in a grinder (Moulinex, France).
Preparation of Extracts
Dried powders of leaves from C. ladaniferus were extracted with different solvents (methanol and ethanol). For methanolic and ethanolic extractions, a 25 g aliquot of each dried sample was extracted using 100 ml of methanol and ethanol respectively, at room temperature for 7 days. Two extraction replicates of each solvent were prepared for each plant sample. The extracts were filtered and the solvents were eliminated using a rotary evaporator (Buchi Heating
Bath B-490, Buchi Rotvapor R-200) to obtain a dry extract.