Industrial Crops and Products 77 (2015) 1–12
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Industrial Crops and Products jo ur nal home p age: www.elsev ier .com/ locate / indcrop
Bioetha us autohy
Fabiano A ilvi
José A. Te a Laboratory of Grand b CEB – Centre rtugal c Biorefinery Gr ila, Bl 25280 Saltillo, a r t i c l
Received 11 Fe
Received in revised form 11 June 2015
Accepted 15 June 2015
Presaccharifica en c thano abundant in Brazil, mainly in the Northeast Region. The first objective of this work was to evaluate the autohydrolysis pretreatment (AP) on these LCMs and the susceptibility of the treated materials to enzymatic hydrolysis (EH). The second part of the work deals with the application of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using
Zymomonas mobilis, Pichia stipitis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and as substrate the green coconut shell (selected according to the results obtained in the first part of the work). The LCMs after AP using the high1. Introdu
In search of some cou cially ethan
However, b itations for increase th (LCMs) as s sugars from mentation. originated i charificatio
The LCM (extracted f wastes, ve ∗ Correspon
E-mail add http://dx.doi.o 0926-6690/© nol tion est severity factor (4.64) showed changes in the chemical composition in comparison to the untreated
LCMs: between the LCMs the cellulose increase was 48.55%, the hemicellulose decrease was 76.77% and an increase of 62.26% was observed for lignin. The green coconut shell was characterized by SEM, X-ray and FTIR after AP and its EH conversion into glucose was 92.52%. The best results on ethanol yield (90.09%) and ethanol productivity (0.21 g/(L h)) from green coconut shell were obtained by S. cerevisiae using SSSF.
Overall, an efficient process for the bioethanol production from green coconut shell was developed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ction to mitigate climate change and fossil fuel dependence ntries, arise as an alternative biofuel production, espeol produced from sugarcane sucrose and cornstarch. oth processes have economical and environmental limits productive expansion. Thus, a promising option to e ethanol supply is the use of lignocellulosic materials ubstrate, which are initially converted in fermentable pretreatment and EH processes and subsequent ferAttempts to produce ethanol from LCMs are old and n Germany and Russia over 80 years ago from the sacn of LCM by acid hydrolysis (Bastos, 2007). s used for ethanol production should be from forests rom vegetable or cultivated), agroindustrial and urban getables grown in inhospitable environments and ding author. ress: firstname.lastname@example.org (G.R. de Macedo). photosynthetic aquatic biomass (Gonc¸ alves et al., 2014). In this context, this work uses agroindustrial waste (coconut fiber mature, green coconut shell and mature coconut shell), urban waste (green coconut shell) and vegetable cultivated in inhospitable environments (cactus) aiming at the bioethanol production. According to
FAO (2012), the global production of coconut in 2009 was approximately 55 million tons, mainly in the Philippines, Indonesia and
India. The fourth largest producer of coconut is Brazil (IBGE, 2012).
Besides, in 2009, the production of cactus in Brazil was 60,000 tons (IBGE, 2012).
The recalcitrance of these LCMs demands a pretreatment to facilitate enzymatic action (Romaní et al., 2010). Several methods for vegetable biomass pretreatment have been studied, e.g., biological, physical, chemical or its combination. The autohydrolysis pretreatment (also called liquid hot water or hydrothermal processing – AP) was initially used by Bobleter et al. (1976) to increase susceptibility to EH of LCMs. Normally, the advantages in the use of AP are the simple operation, absence of corrosion in the equipment, unnecessary use of chemical solvent, except water, addition to low operating costs (Cybulska et al., 2010; Romaní rg/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.06.041 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.nol production from coconuts and cact drolysis velino Gonc¸ alvesa,b, Héctor A. Ruizb,c, Everaldo S ixeirab, Gorete Ribeiro de Macedoa,∗
Biochemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Rio of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Po oup, Food Research Department, School of Chemistry, Autonomous University of Coahu
Coahuila, Mexico e i n f o bruary 2015 a b s t r a c t
The use of coconut fiber mature, gre tant alternative as substrates for bioe pretreated by no dos Santosa, e do Norte, 59078-970 Natal, Brazil vd. V. Carranza e Ing. José Cárdenas Valdés, oconut shell, mature coconut shell and cactus is an imporl production, since these lignocellulosic materials (LCMs) are 2 F.A. Gonc¸ alves et al. / Industrial Crops and Products 77 (2015) 1–12 et al., 2010). In this way, the AP has important features in the preservation of the environment (Garrote et al., 2003).
The AP is carried out by the heating the aqueous suspension in the presence of the LCMs and resulting in the depolymerization and so (oligosacch et al., 2013) hydroxyme
Surface are and re-loca 2013) occu cellulose in of the susc solubilizati stage in the et al., 2011) important c lulose and l of the ferm
This bio that unites fuels and o resources in environmen cesses (Luo promising s and Schebe
Moreove bioethanol arate hydro several disa ity of ethan processing and Agblev approaches growth of m tive strateg small presa ethanol pro
The obje fiber matur lowed by EH
Moreover, S ing Pichia st were develo 2. Materia 2.1. Raw m characteriza
The LCM mature, gre the urban lo