Biosensor Regeneration: A Review of Common Techniques and Outcomesby J. A. Goode, J. V. H. Rushworth, P. A. Millner

Langmuir

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Invited Instructional Review

Biosensor Regeneration; A review on common techniques and outcomes

Jack Antony Goode, Jo Valerie Rushworth, and Paul A. Millner

Langmuir, Just Accepted Manuscript • DOI: 10.1021/la503533g • Publication Date (Web): 17 Nov 2014

Downloaded from http://pubs.acs.org on November 20, 2014

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Biosensor Regeneration; A Review on Common Techniques and

Outcomes

J.Goode*1,2 , J.V.H.Rushworth1,3,P.A.Millner1 1School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, UK 2AbCam Plc. Cambridge, UK 3 School of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University,

Leicester, UK *sm07jag@leeds.ac.uk Tel: (+44)11323437717

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Contents 1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1 2. Biosensor classification ............................................................................................................... 2 3. Mechanisms of biosensor regeneration ..................................................................................... 4 3.1. Enthalpic interactions ............................................................................................................. 4 3.2. Entropic interactions ............................................................................................................... 5 3.3. Chemical regeneration ............................................................................................................ 6 3.3.1. Acid/base mediated regeneration ...................................................................................... 7 3.3.2. Use of detergents ................................................................................................................ 8 3.3.3. Glycine ................................................................................................................................. 8 3.3.4. Urea ..................................................................................................................................... 9 3.4. Thermal regeneration ............................................................................................................. 9 3.5. Electrochemical regeneration ............................................................................................... 10 4. Biosensor architecture and construction .................................................................................. 11 4.1. Transducer surface ................................................................................................................ 11 4.2. Bioreceptor ........................................................................................................................... 13 4.2.1. Binding Valency ................................................................................................................. 15 5. Case studies .............................................................................................................................. 16 5.1. Optical biosensors ................................................................................................................. 16 5.2. Acoustic ................................................................................................................................. 17 5.3. Electrochemical ..................................................................................................................... 18 6. Conclusions ............................................................................................................................... 20 6.1. Criteria for successful regeneration ...................................................................................... 20 7. Acknowledgements ................................................................................................................... 21 8. References ................................................................................................................................ 22