K • • •
As sc pie the art an de na ov in hig the bre breeding the subfertile female or male.
As patients, of any sp n timing. Before co portant to gather an ns, and activities.
Th ting. Determining the type of breeding to be used—either natural mating, fresh semen, fresh chilled, or fro
V d 0zen semen—as well as the pregnancy rate of the male or semen to be used will also he author has nothing to disclose.
H Equine Reproduction Specialists, 1030 Roland Road, PO Box 650, Whitesboro, TX 76273,
SA -mail address: email@example.com et Clin Small Anim 42 (2012) 439–444 oi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.01.009 vetsmall.theclinics.comULATION TIMING AND CYCLE MANAGEMENT clinicians, many of the “infertility issues” encountered in our ecies, may stem from improper cycle management and ovulatio ndemning a breeding female or male as an infertile animal, it is im accurate history of previous cycles, matings, illnesses, medicatio is information will assist you in developing a plan for the next malinical Techniques of rtificial Insemination
Dogs elsea L. Makloski, DVM, MS
Artificial insemination • Transcervical insemination
Transvaginal insemination • Canine • Dog
Surgical insemination sisted reproductive techniques in the dog began in the 18th century when the first ientifically recorded artificial insemination was performed and produced 3 pups.1–3 Although this procedure had an early start, progress was slow to improve se methods. It was not until the mid-1900s that the first litter was produced using ificial insemination with frozen dog semen.3 Since that time, the physiology and atomy of the bitch have been studied extensively to develop techniques to termine ovulation timing, more successful transvaginal and transcervical insemition (TCI) methods, surgical procedures to deposit semen into the uterus and iducts of the bitch, as well as other advanced techniques like embryo transfer and vitro fertilization.
Reproduction in small animal veterinary medicine is rapidly expanding with a very h demand for the knowledge and skills necessary to produce litters, especially in bitch. The following will aid clinicians in educating and assisting the backyard eders as well as those more sophisticated breeders who may be having problems195-5616/12/$ – see front matter © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. as lon de va
Th rat art ge in 3 s
It w the fem do ma bre mo fem tha the str alp ex fem ph
Tra ad an ne the to the fro
Th the no of cra pip 440 Makloskisist in determining which insemination technique to use. Semen of lower quality or gevity will require more intensive tracking of the female’s ovulation and possibly position of semen directly into the uterus or oviduct rather than the traditional ginal deposition. Please refer to the article “Managing the Reproductive Cycle in the ch” by Root-Kustritz and colleagues in this edition for a more in-depth discussion ovulation timing and breeding management.
EEDING TECHNIQUES IN THE BITCH tural Mating e goal of any breeding management program is to achieve the best conception es and litter sizes as efficiently as possible. While this chapter is concentrating on ificial insemination, is would be remiss not to mention natural mating. This is nerally the easiest and cheapest way to produce a pregnancy in most species, and the bitch, there are 3 different strategies that may be applied.
The first strategy involves alternate-day breeding over the receptive period. Of the trategies, this is the least expensive and involves the least amount of management. orks best if the male and female are owned by the same person or are housed on same site and do not have a history of infertility. With this strategy, the male and ale are generally housed separately and the female is brought to the male’s main once a day, both on leads, to observe for the presence of estrus behavior and ting if receptive.
The second strategy involves determining the approximate day of ovulation then eding on days 4 and 6 or days 3 and 5 postovulation. The third strategy involves re intensive monitoring of ovulation and breeding. Conception rates in normal ales bred once between 4 days before or 3 days after ovulation can be greater n 95%.4 These strategies may be used if the male and female are not housed at same location or male availability will only allow for 1 or 2 matings. These ategies can also be implemented with artificial insemination.1
It is important to bring the female to the male’s territory to decrease some of the ha female territorial behavior as this could impede the mating process. If the female hibits estrus behavior but refuses mating or if the male is unable to mate a receptive ale, then veterinary assistance should be sought with both patients examined for ysical and physiologic abnormalities. nsvaginal Insemination nsvaginal insemination may be used when semen quality and bitch fertility are equate, but natural mating cannot be accomplished due to either physical inability d behavioral problems. If transvaginal insemination is to be performed, it is cessary to have the appropriate equipment. Due to the varying breeds and sizes in dog, it is important to select a sterile insemination catheter with adequate length deposit the semen at the external os of the cervix. To do this, palpate the cervix in caudal abdomen and estimate the distance to the vulva or estimate the distance m the costal arch of the rib cage to the vulva and divide the measurement by 2.1 is distance will correlate with the length of the insemination pipette. In addition to insemination catheter, a 6- or 12-mL air-tight syringe to deliver the semen, nspermicidal lubrication, and exam gloves should also be used (Fig. 1).
To inseminate the bitch transvaginally, insert the pipette in the dorsal commissure the vulva and direct it craniodorsally over the ischial arch. Next, direct it in a nially. A gloved finger may be placed in the vulva to guide the passage of the ette to the external os of the cervix. When proper placement of the pipette is ac the sta to for the it h eff a l ac siz