Colorimetric investigation of the reaction between p-phenylendiamine and meta-substituted derivatives of benzene on a model supportby M. Scalzo, M. Strati, M. A. Casadei, F. Cerreto, S. Cesa

International Journal of Cosmetic Science


Colloid and Surface Chemistry / Chemistry (miscellaneous) / Dermatology / Ageing / Drug Discovery / Pharmaceutical Science


J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 415–422 (July/

August 2009)

Skin collagen reproduction increased by ascorbic acid derivative iontophoresis by frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation

Y. Hori*, R. Akimoto, A. Hori, K. Kato§,

D. Chino–, S. Matsumoto**, S. Kamiya, and Y. Watanabe– *Tes Holdings Co., Ltd, Tokyo 111-0032; Homer Ion Laboratory Co., Ltd, Tokyo 150-0045; Gene Expression and Regulation,

Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo 108-8639; §Department of Genetical Education,

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of

Azabu, Kanagawa 229-8501; –Department of

Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, School of

Medicinal Pharmacy, Nihon Pharmaceutical

University, Saitama 362-0806 and **Department of Anesthesiology, Tokyo Medical

University, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan


The effect of the iontophoresis of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C; VC) derivative with frequent-reversal bipolar electric stimulation on the production of collagen in rat skin was evaluated in terms of hydroxyproline content through high-performance liquid chromatography.

First, a control group was not given electrical stimulation and four groups were stimulated with a unipolar pulse for 0.5–10 min every day for one week. The hydroxyproline level in the skin was increased depending on the length of the stimulation. Second, a control group was not given any electrical stimulation, and three groups were treated with (i) VC solution without any stimulation, (ii) a bipolar pulse for 10 min with saline, or (iii) a bipolar pulse for 5 min with the VC solution. Significant increases were found in all the stimulation groups, although these treated with the

VC solution without any stimulation did not have any effects compared to the control.

Thus, in order to increase the hydroxyproline levels in skin, a VC must be delivered with bipolar stimulation as a method of iontophoresis. These results suggest that our newly developed electric stimulation is effective at increasing skin collagen content, and that bipolar stimulation is more effective on the iontophoresis of not only VC but also some medicines such as low- and high-molecular drugs directed to the target organ (7). [[Author: please provide appropriate citation for (7).]]

J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 423–428 (July/

August 2009)

The effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine on stratum corneum desquamation and water content in human skin

T. Mammone, D. Gan, C. Fthenakis, and K. Marenus

Estee Lauder Research Laboratory, Melville, NY 11747, USA


Alpha-hydroxy acids have been used topically to treat skin for both dermatological and cosmetic problems for many years. Though there are many known benefits of the use of a-hydroxy acids on skin, there have been recent reports that topical treatments with a-hydroxy acids increase skin damage resulting from UVB. Additionally, high concentrations of a-hydroxy acids by themselves have also been found to cause skin irritation. In order to find alternatives to a-hydroxy acids, we investigated a variety of amino sugar compounds that were previously reported to inhibit the reaggregation of dissociated corneocytes by modulating cellular adhesion.

In vivo, we observed that topical treatments with a formulation containing N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG) led to an increase in skin moisturization, a decrease in skin flakiness, and the normalization of stratum corneum exfoliation. In vitro, we observed an upregulation of differentiation markers, keratin 10 and involucrin, in keratinocytes treated with

NAG. CD44 is a lectin cell adhesion molecule that is also expressed in keratinocytes. Amino sugars such as NAG may competitively bind to CD44, modulating keratinocyte cellular adhesion. We hypothesize that these amino sugars modulate keratinocyte cellular adhesion and differentiation, leading to the normalization of stratum corneum exfoliation.

We propose the use of amino sugars such as

NAG as alternative compounds to replace the use of a-hydroxy acids in skin care.

J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 429–436 (July/

August 2009)

Colorimetric investigation of the reaction between p-phenylendiamine and meta-substituted derivatives of benzene on a model support

M. Scalzo*, M. Strati, M. A. Casadei*,

F. Cerreto*, and S. Cesa* ª 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ª 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Socie´te´ Franc¸aise de Cosme´tologie

International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 32, 233–235234

Symposium abstracts *Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie del

Farmaco, Universita` di Roma ‘‘La Sapienza,’’

Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome and Tocco

Magico, Via dei Monti Tiburtini 770, 00157

Rome, Italy


The aim of this work was the employment of colorimetric techniques in the analysis of the color formed, on a proteic substrate, by the reaction between p-phenylendiamine and some meta-substituted benzene derivatives in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and in media at different pH values. In particular we investigated the chromatic variations that take place on the substrate in dependence on different reaction conditions. The obtained results show that for each couple of reagents the colorimetric data, namely the reflectance of the formed color, change considerably with the pH of the reaction medium and demonstrate how this parameter can be considered a good descriptor of the composition of the formed pigment.

J. Cosmet. Sci., 60, 437–465 (July/

August 2009)

The cell membrane complex: Three related but different cellular cohesion components of mammalian hair fibers

C. Robbins 12425 Lake Ridge Circle, Clermont, FL 34711,



The structure, chemistry and physical properties of the cell membrane complex (CMC) of keratin fibers are reviewed, highlighting differences in the three types of CMC. Starting with Rogers’ initial description of the CMC in animal hairs, several important developments have occurred that will be described, adding new details to this important structure in mammalian hair fibers. These developments show that essentially all of the covalently bound fatty acids of the beta layers are in the cuticle and exist as monolayers. The beta layers of the cortex are bilayers that are not covalently bonded but are attached by ionic and polar linkages on one side to the cortical cell membranes and on the other side to the delta layer. The delta layer between cortical cells consists of five sublayers; its proteins are clearly different from the delta layer that exists between cuticle cells. The cell membranes of cuticle cells are also markedly different from the cell membranes of cortical cells. Models with supporting evidence are presented for the three different types of cell membrane complex: cuticle–cuticle CMC, cuticle–cortex CMC, and cortex–cortex CMC. ª 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation ª 2010 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Socie´te´ Franc¸aise de Cosme´tologie