Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisisby Ilias Vouitsis, Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Apostolos Kelesis, Maximos Petrakakis, Iraklis Stamos, Evangelos Mitsakis, Zissis Samaras

Atmospheric Environment

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Year
2015
DOI
10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.008
Subject
Atmospheric Science / Environmental Science (all)

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Accepted Manuscript

Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki,

Greece, during the financial crisis

Ilias Vouitsis, Stavros Amanatidis, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Apostolos Kelesis,

Maximos Petrakakis, Iraklis Stamos, Evangelos Mitsakis, Zissis Samaras

PII: S1352-2310(15)30427-1

DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.008

Reference: AEA 14166

To appear in: Atmospheric Environment

Received Date: 15 April 2015

Revised Date: 3 October 2015

Accepted Date: 6 October 2015

Please cite this article as: Vouitsis, I., Amanatidis, S., Ntziachristos, L., Kelesis, A., Petrakakis, M.,

Stamos, I., Mitsakis, E., Samaras, Z., Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial crisis, Atmospheric Environment (2015), doi: 10.1016/ j.atmosenv.2015.10.008.

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Daily and seasonal variation of traffic related aerosol 1 pollution in Thessaloniki, Greece, during the financial 2 crisis 3 4

Ilias Vouitsisa, Stavros Amanatidisa, Leonidas Ntziachristosa, Apostolos Kelesisb, 5

Maximos Petrakakisb , Iraklis Stamosc, Evangelos Mitsakisc and Zissis Samarasa1 6 7

Submitted to Atmospheric Environment 8

Re-revised Version, October 2015 9 10 aLaboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 11

Administration Building, University Campus, PO Box 458, GR-54124 Thessaloniki, 12

Greece 13 bMunicipality of Thessaloniki, Department of Environment, Paparrigopoulou 7, GR-14 54630 Thessaloniki Greece 15 cCentre for Research and Technology Hellas – Hellenic Institute of Transport, 57001, 16

Thermi-Thessaloniki 17 1Corresponding author. Tel.: +30 2310 996014; fax: +30 2310 996019 E-mail 18 address: zisis@auth.gr 19 20 21

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Abstract 22

Airborne urban particulate and gaseous pollutants measurements were conducted 23 at the kerbside of a busy road and at a nearby urban background site of Thessaloniki, 24

Greece, during a winter and a summer period. The main objective was to observe how 25 the financial crisis has affected the air quality in the city, compared to previous 26 measurements. Compared to a study conducted in 2006, the current work suggests 27 that although average concentrations at the traffic affected site remain higher that in 28 the urban background station, the differences are much smaller than in the past. A 29 number of observations suggest a scenario of decrease in traffic activity and increase 30 in biomass burning for residential heating. On this basis, the results suggest that traffic 31 may be less important as an air quality contributor in a financially hit city. On the 32 contrary, domestic heating appears as a significant contributor and affects areas of the 33 city that were earlier not being of environmental concern. Because of the impact of 34 biomass burning in residential areas, exposure calculations are required to estimate 35 whether traffic or biomass burning is the overall highest contributors to daily PM 36 dosages that citizens of the city are exposed to. 37 38

Keywords: Urban aerosol; Ultrafine particles; Particle size distribution; Particle 39 volatility 40

Highlights : 41 • The importance of traffic on air quality has dropped in a financial crisis hit 42 city. 43 • Biomass for domestic heating has significantly worsened the air in residential 44 areas. 45 • Better control of biomass burning needed to alleviate air quality impacts. 46

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1. Introduction 47

In urban areas and, particularly, in the proximity of busy roads, motor vehicle 48 exhaust has been identified as the primary contributor to ambient ultra-fine particles 49 (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm), despite other sources may be larger contributors 50 in the overall regional inventory (Kumar et al., 2014). Domestic heating has been also 51 identified as a significant contributor during the winter (Kumar et al, 2013; Kopanakis 52 et al., 2013; Tuch et al, 2003). Moreover, UFPs form in the urban atmosphere through 53 secondary formation mechanisms such as oxidation and subsequent condensation, 54 involving sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds as gaseous precursors 55 (Holmes, 2007). 56

Thessaloniki is the second largest city in Greece, located on the northern part of 57 the country, with an urban area population of some 800,000. It is one of the most 58 polluted cities in Europe in terms of particulate matter (PM) concentration, with PM10 59 levels systematically exceeding the European standards (EEA, 2006). This is in part 60 due to climate and geography, but also because of the high traffic density, industrial 61 activity, maritime transport and, during winter, domestic heating. The climate in the 62 city area is temperate with weak prevailing winds (sea breeze) and frequent calms, 63 resulting to inefficient dispersion of atmospheric pollutants and short–range transport. 64

For these reasons, particulate pollution in Thessaloniki has been extensively recorded 65 and investigated in terms of size-resolved (PM10 and PM2.5) mass concentration levels 66 and chemical speciation data (i.e., Salameh et al, 2015; Tolis et al, 2015, Samara et al, 67 2014; Sarigiannis et al., 2014; Vouitsis et al, 2014; Voutsa et al, 2014; Saffari, et al., 68 2013; Kassomenos et al., 2011 and 2012; Vlachokostas et al., 2009; Moussiopoulos et 69 al., 2009; Chrysikou and Samara, 2009; Flocas et al., 2009; Katragkou et al., 2009; 70

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