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C-M ll m t.%. y- – we © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. rly inte ilable a erials, ls in cou dy used
Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx
FUPROC-04623; No of Pages 10
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Fuel Processing j ourna l homepage: www.e lshigh moisture content, and low calorific value and can easily aggregate when used in powdery form . These drawbacks can be addressed by torrefaction.
Biomass torrefaction – also called mild pyrolysis – is a thermochemical treatment at low temperatures (200–300 °C), at atmospheric pressure and in an inert atmosphere, which produces a solid. This torrefied solid has lower H:C and O:C ratios, higher energy content, is more hydrophobic, easier to grind and fluidize than the raw biomass .
Thesemodificationsmake the biomassmore suitable for the gasification process, particularly in an entrained flow reactor for instance. It is also its characterisation. Hence, very few studies have focused on the identification and quantification of the condensable species. However, these species could damage the production unit at industrial scale, and would require a gas treatment unit, before being emitted into the atmosphere. On the other hand, they could be reused to produce chemical species as an alternative to petroleum-based products. The management of these torrefaction condensable species is thus a crucial issue in industrialisation of the process.
The articles that deal with the analysis of torrefaction condensable species are listed in Table 1. In addition, Tumuluru et al. more resistant to fungi and bacteria, thereby s feedstock . ⁎ Corresponding author.
E-mail address: email@example.com (J.-M. Command http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.001 0378-3820/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Please cite this article as: K. Lê Thành, et al., lignocellulosic biomasses, Fuel Processing Tefor combustion and gasower, and fuel. However, copic, has a low density, sugars . These condensable species are generally considered as waste or effluent, or are burnt to produce heat . Since the torrefied solid is the main torrefaction product, most studies have focused onification processes, for the production of heat, p this type of biomass is heterogeneous, hygrosVolatiles
Adsorption 1. Introduction
Lignocellulosic biomass is a particula it is renewable, quite abundant and ava source of a large range of products (mat could also be an alternative to fossil fue sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is alrearesting energy source, as ll over the world. It is the chemicals, and energy). It ntries without their own
The torrefied solid usually represents between 60% and 90% db of the initialmass, depending on the operating conditions. The remaining fraction is released as volatile matter. Approximately one-third of this volatile matter is composed of incondensable gases – mainly CO2 and CO; two-thirds of which are condensable species, with approximately onehalf water and the other half acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, furans,Mild pyrolysis id th entified by adsorption on SPME fibre. Finally, the influence of temperature and of the nature of biomass on e yields of condensable species was highlighted.Torrefaction ally, 85 condensable speciesDetailed identification and quantification o torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomasses
Kim Lê Thành a, Jean-Michel Commandré a,⁎, Jérémy V a Centre de Coopération Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIR b Université de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Génie Chimique, 4 allée Émile Monso, 3103 a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o
Received 17 March 2015
Received in revised form 30 June 2015
Accepted 2 July 2015
Available online xxxx
Torrefaction is a mild therm cies. Condensable species re 280 and 300 °C were investi
GC, Karl Fischer titrator and G cies, respectively. The overa species was on average 77w acid, 2-propanone,1-hydroximplifying storage of the ré).
Detailed identification and qu chnology (2015), http://dx.dthe condensable species released during tte a, Ghislaine Volle a, Michel Meyer b , UPR BioWooEB, TA B-114/16, 73 rue Jean-François Breton, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France ulouse, France retreatment which improves biomass properties and releases condensable speed during torrefaction of pine, ash wood, miscanthus and wheat straw at 250, d. A fixed-bed reactor was used for the laboratory scale experiments. A microSwere used to analyse incondensable gases, water and other condensable speass balance ranged from 96 to 103 wt.%. The quantification rate of condensable
In addition to the major species usually reported in the literature –water, acetic we show that large amounts of some anhydrosugars were produced. Additionre identified. Among these species, many terpenes and terpenoids in pine were
Technology ev ie r .com/ locate / fuprocsummed up the analytical techniques for volatiles and other products of biomass torrefaction and pyrolysis. The major condensable species of torrefaction generally identified are water, acetic acid, 2propanone,1-hydroxy-, methanol, formic acid, furfural, formaldehyde [6,11,17–19,26].
Several compoundswhich are used in the chemical industry are also released during torrefaction of lignocellulosic biomass. For instance, antification of the condensable species released during torrefaction of oi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.07.001 of a oma ns
FCns n ith C umn n re 2 K. Lê Thành et al. / Fuel Processing Technology xxx (2015) xxx–xxxTable 1
Recovery and analytical techniques for the analysis of torrefaction condensable species.
Process Type of reactor Recovery technique for volatile species
Torrefaction 3 L laboratory reactor Quench on a pool of condensers.
Temperature not specified.
Gas chr conditio
Torrefaction Batch reactor 2 impinger bottles in series, filled with water and cooled to 5 °C