Europ. J. Agronomy 70 (2015) 41–47
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Effect of nitrogen management during the panicl nitroge eat
Huige Xu , Ga
Shaohua nga a National Engi siolog
Collaborative I 2100 b Jiangsu Yanjia a r t i c l
Received 20 March 2015
Received in revised form 29 June 2015
Accepted 30 June 2015
Residual nitro 15N
Background and aims: The main objectives of this paper were to investigate the absorption and utilization of nitrogen applied at the panicle stage in rice for promoting and protecting spikelet and the effect of residual nitrogen on the utilization of nitrogen in the succeeding wheat crop in the rotation system.
Methods: A field experiment was combined with a mini-plot experiment with 15N labelled urea applied at the panicle stage in rice. The experiments included three nutrient management treatments: F, S1 and
S2. 126 kg N ha−1, 120 kg N ha−1, 72 kg N ha−1 labeled with 30 atom% excess 15N were applied in rice, respectively. 1. Introdu
Valley in C national foo conditions l obviously d (Fan et al., nation of nu increased in ing the effic ∗ Correspon 210095, China
E-mail add http://dx.doi.o 1161-0301/© er nitrogen gen Results: (1) Compare to conventional fertilizer management (F), the optimized fertilizer management (S1&S2) reduced the amount of nitrogen applications, whereas the rice and wheat yield did not decrease, and nitrogen use efficiency was improved. (2) At rice harvest, 4.7–10.7% of the fertilizer 15N was found in the 0–20 cm profile. The fertilizer 15N absorbed by the wheat during the period from jointing to heading accounted for 37.0%-51.1% of the total 15N absorbed. (3) The sum of the ratio of nitrogen absorption from the rice panicle fertilizer applied to the crops (rice and wheat) and ratio of soil residue nitrogen in the wheat field were ordered S2 > S1 > F.
Conclusion: The optimized fertilization management reduced the loss of the rice nitrogen in the rice–wheat rotation system through improved recycling of rice panicle nitrogen applied in the crop-soil system. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. ction eat rotation is widely adopted in the Yangtze River hina, and its sustainable production directly impacts d security (Zhang et al., 2005). Changing hydrothermal ed to rice–wheat rotation system in nutrient cycling are ifferent from the single upland or wetland ecosystems 2008). Nutrient management aimed to use a combitrients by taking measures to ensure that production order to achieve or maintain a target, while coordinatient use and environment friendly nutrient resources, ding author at: Agronomy college, NAU; 1#Weigang Street, Nanjing . Fax: +86 25 84396302. ress: firstname.lastname@example.org (G. Li). and steadily improve soil productivity (Anil, 2009; Akram et al., 2007; Walia et al., 2010). However, several problems have occurred in the current rice–wheat rotation system, including a low nutrient utilization efficiency and nutrient resource loss caused by high nutrient inputs and decreased soil nutrient supply capacity (Fan et al., 2008; Penget al. 2002; Shi 2003; Zhang et al., 2007). Therefore, it is meaningful to study the nutrient cycling in rice–wheat rotation system.
Nitrogen is the primary limiting nutrient for crop yield; however, excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer leads to a reduction of nitrogen utilization efficiency and environmental problems. The fate of nitrogen after fertilizer application primarily follows three routes: uptake by crop, residues in soil, and losses by leaching and volatilization (Kowalenko, 1989; Zhu, 2008), with all three interconnected. Determining the fate of nitrogen is important for rg/10.1016/j.eja.2015.06.008 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.n utilization of rice and succeeding wh a, Guorong Zhonga, Jingjing Lina,b, Yanfeng Dinga
Wanga, Zhenghui Liua, She Tanga, Chengqiang Di neering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture/Key Laboratory of Crop Phy nnovation Center for Modern Crop Production, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing ng Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Rugao 226541, China e i n f o a b s t r a c te stage in rice on the crops nghua Lia,∗, y and Ecology in Southern China/ Jiangsu 95, China 42 H. Xu et al. / Europ. J. Agronomy 70 (2015) 41–47 determining optimum nitrogen management so that crop production and environmental protection can be coordinated.
A number of previous studies have addressed the fate of nitrogen in farmland, and the results have shown that in China, the residual fertilize accounts fo the ammon 2002), whic crops in Chi significantl et al., 2008) tors, includ and fertiliza the fate of n tion system rarely been gen residue species, nit cation meth found that r ing crop, an for 7.5% of t amount of nitrogen fe ing scaveng quantities o
Under v effect of res for determi
Therefore, t current sea tion of nitro manageme 2. Materia 2.1. Experim 2.1.1. Field
The fiel base of Na tude 34◦36 physicoche matter 17.1 nitrogen 86 93.5 mg kg−
The exp from rice s ety was W
May 28, 20 2013. The p 30 cm × 13 separated b of 4.5 m × 7 on Novemb at a rate of ent manage which is w mization m application achieving h application rates are li which nitro a randomiz
Fertilizer application rates for experimental treatments at different growth stages of rice and wheat (kg hm−2).
Treatment Rice Wheat itroge ng ets-pr ets-pr hosp g otass g ntion ition o 15N f will eriod to stag same r 50 of the e pl e a er an ana belle ding ry fe eteor sona mid um owin but i ecipi d in
Sep nd m g se ere recip in ke mple collection and analysis analysis of the above ground biomass and nitrogen content plants was conducted at the inverse fourth leaf stage (jointge of rice), heading stage and maturity stage, in which 60 er plot were investigated and the average number of tillers l was counted. Three representative hills were selected from lot based on the average number of tillers in the field, and m and sheath, blade and spike were separated and desicat 105 ◦C for 30 min and then dried at 80 ◦C for 72 h until nt weight, which was measured. The plant samples from the lot were collected and replanted to maintain the appropriate tion density. The samples were digested with H2SO4-H2O2 alyzed for total nitrogen using the Kjeldahl method. Soil samom the 0–20 cm layer were collected after each harvest andr nitrogen in the soil from the current season usually r 15–30% of the amount of applied nitrogen, whereas ia volatilization of nitrogen accounted for 1–47% (Zhu, h indicates that the nitrogen uptake efficiency of the na is far below the international level 40–60% and even y lower than what was observed in the 1980s (Zhang . The fate of fertilizer nitrogen is affected by many facing different crop systems, climate and soil conditions tion, cultivation and management practices; however, itrogen from rice panicle fertilizer in rice–wheat rotas under different nutrient management practices has investigated. In addition, the effectiveness of the nitros for the succeeding crop varies widely with the crop rogen fertilizer and rate and nitrogen fertilizer appliod (Huang et al., 2002; Li et al., 1995). Ju et al. (2003) esidual nitrogen was partially absorbed by the succeedd the recovery rate of the residual nitrogen accounted he total nitrogen application. Applying the appropriate nitrogen fertilizer and making full use of the residual rtilizer can sustain high yields in crops while reducing of the soil nutrients by crops and eliminating large f residue in soil and losses. arious crop rotation conditions, investigations on the idual nitrogen fertilizer could provide a theoretical basis ning appropriate fertilization rates for succeeding crops. he fate of fertilizer nitrogen applied to the panicle of son rice and its influence on the absorption and utilizagen in succeeding wheat crops under different nutrient nts were studied. ls and methods ental design experiment d experiments were conducted at the Danyang test njing Agricultural University (longitude 119◦10′, lati′). The soil type was yellow loam soil, and the main mical properties were as follows: pH 6.80, organic 5 g kg−1, total nitrogen 0.99 g kg−1, rapidly available .40 mg kg−1, available phosphorus 13.6 mg kg−1, and K 1. eriment was performed in a rice–wheat crop system eason in 2012 to wheat season in 2014. The rice variuyunjing 23, and it was sown on May 30, 2012 and 13 and transplanted on June 28, 2012 and June 27, lanting density was 25 plantings m−2 in the row and cm spacings at 3 seedlings per planting. The plots were y ridges embedded with plastic film to form a plot size m. The wheat variety was Yangmai 16, and it was sown er 11, 2012 and November 6, 2013 by broadcast sowing 225 kg hm−2. The experiments included three nutriment treatments: conventional nutrient management, idely adopted by the local farmers (F), nutrition optianagement 1 (S1, achieving high yield through optimal times) and nutrition optimization management 2 (S2, igh yield and high nitrogen efficiency through optimal times and reduced application rates); the application sted in Table 1. A blank control (CK) was included in gen fertilizer was not applied. The experiment adopted ed block design with three replicates.