Experimental evaluation of self-organized backpressure routing in a wireless mesh backhaul of small cellsby José Núñez-Martínez, Jorge Baranda, Josep Mangues-Bafalluy

Ad Hoc Networks


Computer Networks and Communications / Hardware and Architecture / Software


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Article history:

Received 7 March 2014

Received in revised form 7 July 2014

Accepted 29 July 2014

Available online xxxx

Keywords: s to carry control etwork [2]. practical sumption the mentioned capacity crunch. An identified requi when steering traffic is to dynamically grow or shr pool of SC resources according to network condition exploiting the capacity offered by the wireless mesh backhaul. However, the IEEE 802.11s [3] mesh standard specifies Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) (see Section 2), tree-based protocol oriented to provide network http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2014.07.021 1570-8705/ 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. q Fully documented templates are available in the elsarticle package on

CTAN. ⇑ Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: jose.nunez@cttc.cat (J. Núñez-Martínez), jorge. baranda@cttc.cat (J. Baranda), josep.mangues@cttc.cat (J. Mangues-Bafalluy). 1 Since 1880.

Ad Hoc Networks xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Ad Hoc Ne journal homepage: www.elsincreasing frequency re-use by reducing cell size has historically been the most effective and simple way to increase capacity. Such densification entails challenges at the Transport Network Layer (TNL), since hard-wired a wireless mesh network [1] amongst SC and data plane traffic to/from the core n

A wireless mesh backhaul requires of schemes realizing an even resource conPlease cite this article in press as: J. Núñez-Martínez et al., Experimental evaluation of self-organized backpressure routing in a w mesh backhaul of small cells, Ad Hoc Netw. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2014.07.021routing to ease rement ink the s, thus,1. Introduction

The ever increasing demand for wireless data services has given a starring role to dense deployments of lowpower base stations referred to as small cell (SCs), as backhaul deployments of SCs prove to be cost-prohibitive and inflexible. The main challenge is to provide cost-effective and dynamic TNL solutions for dense and semiplanned SC deployments. An approach to decrease costs and augment the dynamicity at the TNL is the creation ofWireless mesh network


Experimentation ns-3

Performance evaluation

Small cellSmall cells (SC) are low-power base stations designed to cope with the anticipated huge traffic growth of mobile communications. These increasing capacity requirements require the corresponding backhaul capacity to transport traffic from/to the core network. Since it is unlikely that fiber reaches every SC, a wireless mesh backhaul amongst SCs is expected to become popular. These low-cost deployments require to balance resource consumption amongst SCs, however, current routing protocols were not designed to fulfill this requirement. To tackle this challenge, we presented and developed with ns-3 a self-organized backpressure routing protocol (BP), designed to make the most out of the backhaul resources. This paper provides the evaluation of BP exploiting built in ns-3 emulation features to allow rapid prototyping under real-world conditions and through controlled ns-3 simulations. Through a novel evaluation methodology based on ns-3 emulation, we evaluate BP in a 12 SC indoor wireless mesh backhaul testbed under different wireless link rates and topologies, showing Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) gains of up to 50% with respect to shortest path (SP). Through simulations, we show BP scalability properties with both the size of the backhaul and the number of backhaul radios per SC. Results in single- and multiradio deployments show TCP traffic gains with BP of up to 79% and 95% compared to SP in terms of throughput and latency, respectively.  2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tExperimental evaluation of self-orga in a wireless mesh backhaul of sma

José Núñez-Martínez ⇑,1, Jorge Baranda, Josep

Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya (CTTC), Av. Carl Friedried backpressure routing ellsq gues-Bafalluy ss, 7, 08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain tworks evier .com/locate /adhocireless connectivity rather than the exploitation of resources.

Aiming for capacity, the original centralized backpressure algorithm [4] proved to be throughput optimal in theory.

However, its implementation under real-world conditions showed scalability problems with the number of flows and forces the wireless network to operate on a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) MAC [5]. To counteract these issues, in [6,7], we presented and evaluated through ns-3 simulations [8] a self-organized backpressure routing protocol (BP) for the TNL that dynamically grows or shrinks SC resources according to network conditions (see Section 2).

Specifically [6] focuses on multi-gateway SC deployments, whereas in [7] the focus is on sparse wireless mesh backhaul deployments. Additionally, in [9] we presented the integration details and preliminary experimental results of our scheme using ns-3 emulation features (see Section 2). However, the evaluation in [6] was merely based on simulations in a single-radio single-channel backhaul deployments, and the experimental evaluation in [9] was scarce.

The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we detail the configuration of the experimental platform (see Section 3) using ns-3 emulation composed by 12 SCs endowed with 3G for the Radio Access Network (RAN), and an additional WiFi card to form a WiFi-based mesh backhaul amongst them (see Fig. 1), thus, forming an all-wireless

Network of SCs (NoS). Prior to the evaluation of BP, we

Second, we tested BP in a wide variety of realistic wireless mesh backhaul conditions (see Section 5). In particular, using ns-3 emulation we demonstrate the operation of BP under different wireless link configurations (wireless link rate, ambient noise reduction techniques) and showed how by switching on and off SCs in the testbed, BP adapts to dynamic wireless mesh backhaul deployments. We observed gains of around 50% in terms of PDR with regards to a shortest path (SP) routing policy. Additionally, we demonstrated through ns-3 simulations the scalability of