First report of a phytogeographically mixed (transitional) Middle–Late Permian fossil wood assemblage from the Hami area, northwest China, and implications for Permian phytogeographical, paleogeographical and paleoclimatic evolution in central Asiaby Xinxiang Wei, Xionghua Zhang, G.R. Shi, Xingmin Zhao, Xing Huang, Tengfei Luan

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology


Earth-Surface Processes / Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics / Oceanography / Palaeontology



H ph a a, b,c, min Zhao d, Xing Huang a, Tengfei Luan a c State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geo d Oil and Gas Survey Center of China Geological Survey, Beij a r t i c l e i n f o mixed Permian floras of North China is linked to the closure of the Tianshan–Hingan seaway coupled with the ion of the Cathaysian 08). Notably, Permian qi and Turpan areas of e Helan Mountains of

Feng et al., 2010a, b, n this study, we report, adalupian to Lopingian astern Xinjiang Uygur

Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

PALAEO-07272; No of Pages 16

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Palaeogeography, Palaeocli j ourna l homepage: www.e ls1. Introduction

Fossil woods are valuable fossil materials in the geological record and their occurrences have contributed significantly to our understanding of past terrestrial ecosystems (Artabe et al., 2007). In recent years, a number of fossil woods have been discovered in China, but most of them belong to the Mesozoic–Cenozoic (e.g., McKnight et al., 1990;

Zhang et al., 1999; Duan et al., 2002; Yi et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2009;

China are known mainly from the north subreg region (namely North China) (Zheng et al., 20 fossil woods have been reported from the Urum

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and from th

Ningxia Huizu Autonomous Region (Sze, 1934; 2011, 2012, 2013; Feng, 2012;Wan et al., 2014). I for the first time, a fossil wood assemblage of Gu age from the Hami area near Tianshan Town in ecollision and amalgamation of Siberia with North China and the Tarim block, in a manner much like closing a pair of scissors with the closure of the seaway proceeding gradually and progressively from west to the east. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Jiang et al., 2012; Philippe et al., 2014). Late P ⁎ Corresponding author. ⁎⁎ Correspondence to: G.R. Shi, School of Life and En

University, Melbourne Burwood Campus, 221 Burw

Australia. Tel.: +61 3 9251 7619.

E-mail addresses: (X. Zhang), gu (G.R. Shi). 0031-0182/© 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article as: Wei, X., et al., First from the Hami area, northwest ..., Palaeogeoboth seasonal variation and unstable climate conditions. Previously, similarly mixed floras have already been found to exist widely in northern China ranging in age from Early to Late Permian, but the mechanisms thought to be responsible for their formation were varied and remain controversial. In this study, the formation of theseArticle history:

Received 15 January 2015

Received in revised form 10 May 2015

Accepted 18 May 2015

Available online xxxx


Middle–Late Permian

Fossil wood

Mixed Permian floras




Chinaity, Melbourne Burwood Campus, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia logy, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Wuhan, PR China ing 100029, PR China a b s t r a c t

A diverse and well-preserved fossil wood assemblage is described, for the first time, from the Middle Permian

Taerlang Formation and the Upper Permian Quanzijie Formation in the vicinity of the Tianshan Town, Hami City of northwestern China. On the basis of wood microstructure, the fossil woods are classified into three genera and five species, including one new genus: Prototianshanoxylon gen. nov. and two new species: Prototianshanoxylon erdaogouense sp. nov., Prototianshanoxylon hamiense sp. nov. The new genus is characterized by window-like cross-field pitting and mixed tracheid radial wall pitting that suggest a transitional type between araucarioidtype and protopinoid-type pittings.

Phytogeographically, the fossil wood assemblage is characterized by an admixture of elements of both temperate

Angaran (represented by wood specimens with moderately to well defined growth rings in their secondary xylem) and tropical–subtropical north subregion of the Cathaysian floras (with wood specimens lacking welldefined growth rings). Such a phytogeographically mixed fossil wood assemblage is interpreted to represent a transitional and complex climate condition between a cool temperate and tropical to subtropical zones, showinga School of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences, Wu b School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin Univershan 430074, PR ChinaXinxiang Wei , Xionghua Zhang ⁎, G.R. Shi ⁎⁎, XingFirst report of a phytogeographically mixe

Permian fossil wood assemblage from the and implications for Permian phytogeogra paleoclimatic evolution in central Asiaaleozoic fossil woods in vironmental Sciences, Deakin ood Highway, Victoria 3125, report of a phytogeographica gr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol(transitional) Middle–Late ami area, northwest China, ical, paleogeographical and matology, Palaeoecology ev ie r .com/ locate /pa laeoAutonomous Region, China. This discovery not only fills in a gap in Late

Paleozoic fossilwood record in thenorth of Xinjiang but also provides significant new information useful both for constraining the boundary between the Late Paleozoic Angaran and Cathaysian phytobiogeographic provinces and for reconstructing the paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions of northwest China (and central Asia) during the Middle–

Late Permian. lly mixed (transitional) Middle–Late Permian fossil wood assemblage . (2015), 2. Geological setting

The research area is located in the Tuha basin of eastern Xinjiang (Fig. 1A, B; Li et al., 1991). Extending nearly east–west and covering an area N50,000 km2, the Tuha basin is bordered by the Bogda–Harlik orogenic belt to the north and by the Jueluotage orogenic belt in the south (Fig. 1A; Wartes et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2013). The basin experienced intense tectonic movements in the Late Paleozoic and, after the

Early Permian, was converted into a continental setting dominated by lacustrine–fluvial facies (Liu et al., 2006).