auo , Chi mos s, N ity, X
Received 25 November 2014
Accepted 29 January 2015 liquid–vapor interfaces .
Owing to its intensive use and complexity, boiling has attracted extensive research efforts in the past decades and is still a subject of ongoing research activities in many groups all over the world.
Nukiyaman is one of the pioneers in boiling research. He place when the the satura flux is bel the surfac perature is increased above a threshold temperature (the so
Leidenfrost temperature). In film boiling, the heating sur completely covered with a continuous vapor film and the does not contact the heating surface. Transition boiling, in which a large portion of the heating surface will be covered by vapor, occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate boiling and the minimum attainable in film boiling.
This type of boiling is very unstable as it is accompanied by a reduction in the heat flux with an increase in the wall superheat . ⇑ Corresponding author at: Computational Earth Science Group (EES-16), Mail
Stop T003, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. Tel.: +1 505 665 9663; fax: +1 505 665 8737.
E-mail address: email@example.com (Q.J. Kang).
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 85 (2015) 787–796
Contents lists availab
International Journal of H .edevices. Actually, boiling is an extremely complex and elusive process in which various physical components are involved and interrelated, such as the nucleation, growth, departure, and coalescence of vapor bubbles, the transport of latent heat, and the instability of
Nucleate boiling is a boiling mode that takes temperature of the heating surface is higher than id temperature by a certain amount but the heat critical heat flux. Film boiling appears whenhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.01.136 0017-9310/ 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.ted fluow the e tem-called face is liquid1. Introduction
Boiling is commonly observed in our daily life and is ubiquitous in nature as well as in many industrial applications [1–3]. Nucleate boiling, a well-known boiling phenomenon, has been recognized as one of the most effective heat transfer modes and used in a wide field of high-tech devices and systems such as nuclear reactors, heavy-vehicle engines, computer chips, and micro-electronic experimentally  measured the heat transmitted from metal to boiling water over a wide range of wall superheats and qualitatively established the pool boiling curve, which is an important cornerstone for boiling research and helps to distinguish different regimes in pool boiling . Today, it is widely recognized that the pool boiling with controlled surface temperature can be divided into three distinct regimes [1,3,6]: nucleate boiling, transition boiling, and film boiling.Keywords:
Lattice Boltzmann method
Liquid–vapor phase change
Boiling heat transfer
WettabilityA hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is presented to simulate thermal multiphase flows with phase change based on an improved pseudopotential LB approach (Li et al., 2013). The present model does not suffer from the spurious term caused by the forcing-term effect, which was encountered in some previous thermal LB models for liquid–vapor phase change. Using the model, the liquid–vapor boiling process is simulated. The boiling curve together with the three boiling stages (nucleate boiling, transition boiling, and film boiling) is numerically reproduced in the LB community for the first time. The numerical results show that the basic features and the fundamental characteristics of boiling heat transfer are well captured, such as the severe fluctuation of transient heat flux in the transition boiling and the feature that the maximum heat transfer coefficient lies at a lower wall superheat than that of the maximum heat flux.
Furthermore, the effects of the heating surface wettability on boiling heat transfer are investigated. It is found that an increase in contact angle promotes the onset of boiling but reduces the critical heat flux, and makes the boiling process enter into the film boiling regime at a lower wall superheat, which is consistent with the findings from experimental studies. 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tLattice Boltzmann modeling of boiling he and the effects of wettability
Q. Li a,b, Q.J. Kang b,⇑, M.M. Francois c, Y.L. He d, K.H. L a School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 bComputational Earth Science Group (EES-16), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Ala c Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics (T-3), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamo dMOE Key Laboratory of Thermal-Fluid Science and Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong Univers eDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE, journal homepage: wwwt transfer: The boiling curve e na , NM 87545, USA
M 87545, USA i’an 710049, China le at ScienceDirect eat and Mass Transfer l sevier .com/locate / i jhmt at aWith the rapid development of computer technology, numerical simulations of boiling phenomena gradually play an important role in investigating the mechanism and the heat transfer characteristics of boiling . The first attempt was made by Son and Dhir [7,8], who studied the evolution of the liquid–vapor interface during saturated film boiling with a level set method . Meanwhile,
Juric and Tryggvason  extended the front tracking method to simulate horizontal film boiling by adding a source term to the continuity equation. Subsequently, Welch and Wilson  proposed a volume of fluid based method to simulate horizontal film boiling. Since then, a lot of numerical studies have been conducted to investigate boiling phenomena within the framework of the traditional numerical methods, in which the liquid–vapor interface is tracked as part of the solution of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. Detailed review of these studies can be found in Refs. [3,6,11,12].