Morphological abnormalities in periphytic diatoms as a tool for biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution in a riverby Lalit K. Pandey, Dhananjay Kumar, Arpana Yadav, Jyoti Rai, J.P. Gaur

Ecological Indicators


Decision Sciences (all) / Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics / Ecology


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Ecological Indicators 36 (2014) 272– 279

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Morph tom biomon ver

Lalit K. P i Ra a Laboratory of ia b Department o , India a r t i c l

Article history:

Received 10 A

Received in re

Accepted 2 Au



Heavy metal t

Metal diffusin

Periphytic alga

Diatom ent o alga hich es in (r2 > evide arvulu line o ities odifi defo

The present study shows the utility of morphological abnormalities in diatom frustules as an effective tool for biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution in waterbodies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introdu

Increasin to uncontro a major and

Therefore, in waterbo harmful eff metal cont not often g which are p tools assum quality of a organisms ing of meta and cyanob nature, sma tivity to env 1981). More of waterbod ∗ Correspon

E-mail add (L.K. Pandey). 1470-160X/$ – http://dx.doi.oction g concentration of heavy metals in waterbodies, due lled urbanization and unregulated industrialization, is persistent environmental problem of global concern. it is necessary to regularly monitor these pollutants dies so as to protect inhabiting organisms from their ects. This may be carried out by analyzing water for aminants; however, it is time consuming and does enerate information about bioavailable metal species rimarily responsible for toxicity. Hence, biomonitoring e great significance for ensuring maintenance of water quatics impacted by metal contaminants. A variety of have been tested for their usefulness in biomonitorl pollutants (Zhou et al., 2008). In this context, algae acteria have great potential due to their cosmopolitan ll size, short-life span, easy availability, and great sensiironmental and anthropogenic perturbations (Rai et al., over, these organisms are the main primary producers ies thus playing a pivotal role in aquatic food webs. ding author. Tel.: +91 9919081460; fax: +91 542 2366402. resses:,

A great deal of effort has been made to understand responses of algal communities to metals and possible application of algal criteria for biomonitoring of these pollutants. These studies use either cultured or natural algal communities. Although phytoplankton can be used for biomonitoring of metals (Singh and Rai, 1990), periphyton, a consortium of microorganisms (mainly algae, cyanobacteria and bacteria embedded in their exopolysaccharides), is a better choice because of it being attached to some kind of solid surface (Larned, 2010). Diatoms are an extremely important constituent of periphyton and many indices, based on these organisms, have been proposed for biomonitoring of eutrophication and organic pollutants (Prygiel et al., 1999). In fact, diatoms represent an important component of the water quality biomonitoring program as per

European Water Frame Work Directive (WFD) of 2000 (De Jonge et al., 2008). It is fairly well established that elevated concentrations of metals in water cause disappearance or lowering of population size of metal sensitive diatom species, but concurrently increasing the contribution of tolerant taxa to the diatom community (Morin et al., 2012; Rimet, 2012). These changes eventually lead to lowering of species diversity of the diatom community.

Several researchers report morphological abnormalities in diatoms under metal stress (Falasco et al., 2009a) and therefore there is a strong possibility of using the frequency of deformed diatom frustules as a parameter for biomonitoring of metal contaminants (Morin et al., 2012). In this context, a few researchers have tried to establish a relationship between metal concentration see front matter © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. rg/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.08.002ological abnormalities in periphytic dia itoring of heavy metal pollution in a ri andeya,∗, Dhananjay Kumarb, Arpana Yadava, Jyot

Algal Biology, Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Ind f Botany, School of Life Sciences, H.N.B. Garhwal University, Srinagar, Garhwal 246174 e i n f o pril 2013 vised form 30 July 2013 gust 2013 l abnormality oxicity g substrate l community a b s t r a c t

In situ effect of heavy metal enrichm metal diffusing substrates. Periphytic lation of test metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) w increased morphological abnormaliti frustules showed a strong relationship the substrate. Frustule deformity was in Fragilaria capucina, Gomphonema p pattern of striations and changed out raphe modification and mixed deform observed under metal stress. Raphe m abnormalities in striations and mixed/ locate /eco l ind s as a tool for ia, J.P. Gaura n periphytic diatom community of a river was studied using e growing on these substrates showed intracellular accumuinhibited growth, as evidenced by reduced cell number, and diatoms. In the case of Cu and Zn, percent deformed diatom 0.80) with intracellular metal content and metal release from nt in 15 of the 19 common diatom taxa, occurring frequently m, Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia conica and Ulnaria ulna. Altered f frustules were the only deformities in the control; however, (several deformities in the same frustule) were additionally cations were more frequent in the case of Cu exposure, while rmities were more prevalent in diatoms exposed to Zn or Pb.

L.K. Pandey et al. / Ecological Indicators 36 (2014) 272– 279 273 in water or sediment and percent occurrence of deformed diatom frustules. Cattaneo et al. (2004) found a weak relationship between metal content in sediment and occurrence of deformities in inhabiting diatoms. Lavoie et al. (2012) could not observe statistically significant deformities workout a r application does exist deformed d diatom com in a waterb

The mai logical abno metal diffu release of t well as colo were simila researchers phytic com