intestinal tract of horses.The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of daily dietary yeast supplementation (14g, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, frequent fertilization treatments and cuttings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of management practices, including cutting height, nitrogen fertilization eterinaDiamond V) on parasitic load as determined by fecal egg counts in 1) mature male horses, 2) broodmares, and 3) foals of yeast-fed mares compared to controls. We hypothesized that dietary yeast supplementation would decrease the number of parasitic eggs per gram of feces.
All adult horses were administered an anthelmintic prior to the start of the experiments. In experiment 1 twenty adult male horses (18 geldings and 2 stallions) were randomly assigned to receive dietary yeast (Trt, n¼10), or to serve as controls (Con, n¼10) for 85 days. Fecal samples were collected from the males on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 85. In experiment 2, six pregnant quarter horse mares served as Trt (n¼3) or Con (n¼3). Yeast was fed to
Trt mares daily beginning 70 days prior to the expected foaling date and continued 70 days post-foaling. Fecal samples were collected from mares on 70 days prefoaling, and days 0.5, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70 post-foaling from mares and their foals. Sucrose fecal floatation assays were used to determine the presence of parasite eggs. All samples had limited eggs so samples were rated and categorized as negative, or positive with rare (1-10 eggs/gram), few (11-50 eggs per gram), moderate (51-100 eggs per gram) eggs. The proc freq procedure of
SAS and a chi-square test was used to first determine overall differences in negative and positive samples in each group, on each collection day. In experiment 1, all samples were rated negative, rare, or few. There was no effect of dietary yeast on positive samples (P>0.13) throughout the experiment even when controlling for gelding vs. stallions (P¼0.24). Rating by day, when controlling for treatment group, was significantly different in Con males (P<0.04), but not in Trt males (P<0.068). In experiment 2 there was no effect of age by treatment when comparing mares and foals (P>0.4) or treatment by day (P>0.58). All samples from mares and foals were rated negative or rare. Dietary yeast did not decrease the presence or frequency of parasite eggs in fecal samples from adult mares, or broodmares and their foals. There is incentive for larger scale projects investigating the potential benefits of dietary yeast on parasitic load in horses where horses are not as intensively managed. Additionally, there exists opportunity to elucidate other immune parameters in horses fed dietary yeast.
Effects of cutting height, nitrogen fertilization, and harvest time on crude protein content of Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) 1 1 2 2Dietary yeast is commonly supplemented to horse diets and is believed to improve immune function. However, there is little scientific evidence available to determine if supplementation decreases parasite load in the gastroAbstracts / Journal of Equine V398A. Hardcastle , G. Parks , G. Bates , D. McIntosh ,
J. Beeler 2, and B. McIntosh 1 1Department of Animal Science, 2 Department of Plant
Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996level, and time of day at harvest, on crude protein (CP) content of Bermudagrass hay. The variety of Bermudagrass studied was Vaughn’s No. 1, a cold tolerant variety first observed in White County, Tennessee. Plots were established at the University of Tennessee East Tennessee and
Plateau Research and Education Centers. Treatments were assigned using a randomized complete block design.
Twelve total treatment combinations of cutting height, nitrogen fertilization level, and harvest time of day were assigned to each of 48 plots (9.3m2), with 4 replications per treatment combination. Two cutting heights (38.1 and 50.8 cm), three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 5.5 and 11.0 kg/ ha), and two sample collection times (1000 (AM) and 1500 (PM)) were evaluated. All plots were harvested using a flail small-plot harvester to capture total forage plant material.
Forage samples (n¼144) were oven dried at 60C in a forced air oven for 72 hours to determine dry matter (DM).
Samples were analyzed for forage quality using a FOSS 6500 near-infrared spectrometer to determine CP content.
Data were analyzed using the mixed model method for randomized complete block design (SAS V. 9.3, SAS Institute 2012). Data are reported as LS Means SEM as a percent of DM. Crude protein content was higher in samples collected at 38.1cm compared to those collected at 50.8 cm. (9.69 vs. 8.52%, respectively P<0.01). Nitrogen treatment also affected the CP content, with 0, 5.5, and 11.0 kg/ha yielding 8.98%, 8.94%, and 9.40% CP, respectively (P<.0.01). Crude protein content tended to be higher in AM samples than PM samples (9.23 vs. 8.98%, P¼0.059), but overall CP was not affected by sampling time. There was a cutting height x nitrogen fertilization level interaction (P<0.01). As expected, these results indicate that higher levels of nitrogen fertilization and harvesting of lessmature forages leads to increased CP content in Bermudagrass hay.
Since horse owners often use CP as an indicator of overall nutrient content and forage quality, it is important that hay producers understand what factors affect the CP content of their product. Further studies may help to clarify the optimum nitrogen fertilization level and cutting height for
Bermudagrass hay in Tennessee.
Pasture best management practices on horse farms in
Minnesota and Wisconsin
S.L. Privatsky 1, J.E. Earing 2, J.A. Lamb 3, C.C. Sheaffer 4, and
K.L. Martinson 1 1Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, 2Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a warm season perennial grass commonly found in the southeastern
United States. It is a popular hay choice for horse owners in the Tennessee because of its ability to grow well in the southeastern climate. Bermudagrass hay is often managed more intensively than cool season grass hay, with more ry Science 33 (2013) 321-399St. Paul, MN, Tennessee Farmers Cooperative, La Vergne,