Public relations and public diplomacy in cultural and educational exchange programs: A coorientational approach to the Humphrey Programby Jarim Kim

Public Relations Review


Marketing / Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management / Communication


Please ci tional exc http://dx.

ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelPUBREL-1441; No. of Pages 11

Public Relations Review xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Public Relations Review

Public educat to the H

Jarim Kim

School of Comm a r t i c l

Article history:

Received 2 Jun

Received in re

Accepted 18 S



Public relation


Public diplom

Cultural and e

Humphrey Pro




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Americanis nearly thre from 1993 the U.S. gov public diplo

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The U.S. campaign “ $15 million $35 million attitudes to 2006; Plaisa outcomes, a

E-mail add http://dx.doi.o 0363-8111/© te this article in press as: Kim, J. Public relations and public diplomacy in cultural and educahange programs: A coorientational approach to the Humphrey Program. Public Relations Review (2015), relations and public diplomacy in cultural and ional exchange programs: A coorientational approach umphrey Program unication, Kookmin University, Bugak Hall 603, 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702, South Korea e i n f o e 2015 vised form 5 August 2015 eptember 2015 n s model acy ducational exchange gram ction g to a series of surveys of “The Global Attitude Project,” (Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, 2002,

U.S. national image has continuously eroded across the globe, from Western allies to Muslim countries. Antim is not a recent issue; it has been one of the main concerns of international relations scholars and diplomats for e decades (Wang, 2006a). After the Cold War, waning U.S. budgets for public diplomacy, dropping by one-third to 2000, indicated a loss of interest (de Lima, 2007). However, since the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, ernment appears to be revisiting public diplomacy. For example, funding for the Fulbright Program, a major U.S. macy institution, increased from $215 million in 2001 to $386 million in 2010 (William Fulbright Scholarship , 2010). government made efforts to engage the minds of Arab people and to shape a positive U.S. image. The advertising

Shared Values Initiative” was run in the Middle East and Asia between October 2002 and January 2003, spending (Kendrick & Fullerton, 2004), and Radio Sawa and Television Alhurra were launched in 2002 at an expense of and $62 million, respectively, in 2004. The results of these attempts were deemed skeptical, even worsening the ward the United States, as the Arab public recognized the implicit intention of the U.S. government (el-Nawaway, nce, 2005). As is often the case, communication does not necessarily lead to mutual understanding or intended nd thus, must be strategically planned and managed until its goal is attained. ress: rg/10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.09.008 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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ARTICLE IN PRESSG ModelPUBREL-1441; No. of Pages 11 2 J. Kim / Public Relations Review xxx (2015) xxx–xxx

Strategic communication, defined as “the purposeful use of communication by an organization to fulfill its mission” (Hallahan, Holtzhausen, van Ruler, Vercˇicˇ, & Sriramesh, 2007), has the potential to help solve such problems, because strategically designed communication with foreign publics could help remove unnecessary misunderstanding, while fostering mutual understanding. A growing number of public relations scholars have attended to public diplomacy (Fitzpatrick, 2007), arguing for values (Kru

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These scho promote th overseas pute this article in press as: Kim, J. Public relations and public diplomacy in cultural and educachange programs: A coorientational approach to the Humphrey Program. Public Relations Review (2015), the need for long-term relationship-building with foreign citizens built upon the understanding of other cultural ckeberg, 1996; Vujnovic & Kruckeberg, 2005) and communicating with them on the individual level (Dutta006). However, there exists a lack of empirical research on this need; most studies have theoretically compared ted two areas. At the same time, public diplomacy has been criticized for its lack of theoretical frameworks, s relying on techniques to achieve its goals, rather than relying on academic research-based approaches. of looking at the public diplomacy is through the examination of cultural and educational exchange programs. called the international student a “culture carrier,” and such face-to-face interaction between cultures through educational exchange programs has been found to be effective in reducing biases and stereotypes (de Lima, 2007, awawy, 2006). The U.S. State Department makes an effort to interact with foreign publics at the interpersonal gh such diverse programs as the Fulbright Exchange Program or the International Visitors Program. However, it is ether such programs successfully achieve their goals, especially when various individuals from different countries hin such programs. Equally important as the development of such programs for public diplomacy are the ongoing luating and managing their functions to maximize their effectiveness, which are critical to the achievement of d goals of the programs. In particular, depending on positions (e.g., staff, participants), individuals’ perceptions better understanding of the perceptual differences and possible consequent miscommunication is expected to mmunication effectiveness. For example, reduced conflict at the workplace can enhance the productivity of a nd removing miscommunication between two countries can prevent wars. With the assumption that strategic tions with foreign publics can help achieve U.S. public diplomacy goals, the current study examines a cultural and l exchange program. Specifically, this study examines the Humphrey Fellowship Program using the coorientation seful framework to observe gaps between two groups – with focus on the perceptual differences between staff nd Fellows. n purposes of the study are threefold. First, the study aims to contribute to the body of public relations literature e applicability of public relations theories to the public diplomacy area. Second, it attempts to provide theoretical s for public diplomacy researchers within which strategic communication plans can be developed. Last, this study vide practical implications for public diplomacy practitioners. re review diplomacy and public relations nally, diplomacy is defined as “the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations” (Diplomacy, n.d.). government-to-government- or diplomat-to-diplomat-based diplomacy, public diplomacy extends its realm to mental individuals and institutions. According to the definition of the University of Southern California (USC) ublic Diplomacy, “public diplomacy focuses on the ways in which governments (or multilateral organizations