Ultrasonic preparation of cationic cotton and its application in ultrasonic natural dyeingby A. Guesmi, N. Ladhari, F. Sakli

Ultrasonics Sonochemistry

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and its application in ultrasonic

Univ

Cotton

Ultrasound

Isosalipurposide dye

Dyeing ric w tion oa oce tage techniques with isosalipurposide dye isolated from Acacia cyanophylla yellow flowers. The effect of dye tions i ical tex t prop ctricity

Thus, the development of a more efficient method for cationizing cotton is highly desirable. Recently, ultrasonic irradiation has been widely applied to various types of chemical reaction [4]. Compared with conventional methods, many chemicals reactions could be carried out under ultrasound irradiation to give higher yields, shorter reaction times andmilder conditions [5,6]. Also, to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of cationization, ultrasonic 2. Experimental 2.1. Materials 2.1.1. Textile materials

Scoured and bleached cotton fabric (150 g/m2) was used. Before using, the fabric was treated with a solution containing 1 g/Ll nonionic detergent (Hostapal CV, Clariant), at 95 C for 30 min. Then, the fabric was thoroughly washed with water and air dried at room temperature. ⇑ Corresponding author.

Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 20 (2013) 571–579

Contents lists available at o elsE-mail address: ahlemguesmi@ymail.com (A. Guesmi).coloration of cotton was the main topic of several studies which have developed the cationization of cotton in order to enhance its dyeability with anionic dyes [1,2]. The majority of reported chemical modifications that increase the substantivity of anionic dyes for cellulose are based on the incorporation of amino groups in the fibre [3]. The work presented in the manuscript is the first example of the sonicator preparation of cationic cotton provided by reaction of cellulose with bromoacetyl bromide, followed by substitution of the terminal bromo groups by triethylamine (Scheme 1). ties of modified cotton fabric using isosalipurposide dye; a purified chalcone isolated from Acacia cyanophylla yellow flowers. The modification conditions such as sonication, triethylamine concentration, the modification temperature and time were investigated.

Also the dyeing conditions in both conventional and ultrasonic techniques, the fastness properties, the kinetics and the isotherms of dyeing of modified cotton using isosalipurposide dye were investigated.1. Introduction

Cotton fibre has extensive applica related industrial sectors and techn standing properties, such as excellen ity, biodegradability, no static ele1350-4177/$ - see front matter  2012 Elsevier B.V. A http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.04.012bath pH, ultrasonic power and frequency, dyeing time and temperature were studied and the order of

K/S values indicates ultrasound, 25 kHz > ultrasound, 40 kHz > CH. ultrasound was also found to enhance the dye uptake and the overall fastness properties. Analysis of the sorption isotherms of isosalipurposide dye on cationic cotton fabric shows that the Languimir isotherm equation is best able to correlate the data.  2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. n apparel, as well as in tiles, owing to its outerties of air permeabil, etc. In this regard, dyeability of modified cotton fabric with Acacia has been studied.

Indeed, it has been made clear that proteinic fibres (silk and wool) have great affinity to dyes extracted from Acacia and that cellulosic fibre (cotton, rayon, and acetate), on the contrary have very little affinity to those colorants [7]. For reasons of reproducibility of dyeing, the present study investigates the dyeing and fastness proper-Keywords:

Cationization 40 kHz > mechanical stirring. The structures of both untreated and cationic fibres were investigated by

FTIR spectroscopy. Modified cotton fabric was subsequently dyed in both conventional and ultrasonicUltrasonic preparation of cationic cotton natural dyeing

A. Guesmi ⇑, N. Ladhari, F. Sakli

Textile Engineering Laboratory , Higher Institute of Technological Studies of Ksar Hellal, a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 8 February 2012

Received in revised form 21 April 2012

Accepted 29 April 2012

Available online 22 May 2012 a b s t r a c t

Cationization of cotton fab mide, followed by substitu the optimal volume of brom weight gain for various pr ring. Also, for the second s

Ultrasonics S journal homepage: www.ll rights reserved.ersity of Monastir, Tunisia as conferred by the sonicator reaction of cellulose with bromoacetyl broof the terminal bromo groups by triethylamine. Experiments showed that cetyl bromide necessary to succeed the first stage was 0.4 mL. The order of sses indicates, ultrasound, 25 kHz > ultrasound, 40 kHz > mechanical stirthe order of nitrogen contents indicates ultrasound, 25 kHz > ultrasound,SciVerse ScienceDirect nochemistry evier .com/ locate /ul tsonch

For comparison, the same condition of acylation of cotton was g th onoccarried out using ultrasound. The fabric was exposed to ultrasonic frequencies of 25 or 40 kHz at different power levels (100–500 W); the fabric was then rinsed thoroughly in tap water and dried in the open air.

Throughout the manuscript, mechanical stirring is abbreviated to ‘stirring’ and ultrasonic treatment is abbreviated to ‘US’.2.1.2. Plant material

Yellow flowers of A. cyanophylla grown in Siliana (region of

Tunisia) were collected in March 2010. The pigment obtained from

Acacia has good colouring capacity. It is thermostable, thus is also suitable for either conventional or ultrasonic dyeing where the bath temperature ranges from 40 to 80 C. 2.1.3. Chemicals

Dimethylformamide (DMF), triethylamine (30% w/w, aqueous solution) and bromoacetyl bromide were used without further purification (Aldrich). Thin layer chromatography was performed on silica gel 254 plates (Merck) with UV (254 nm) visualisation whereas chromatographic separations were conducted on silica gel Si-60–7734 Merck using water-Jacketed columns. 2.2. Methods 2.2.1. Extraction and isolation of colorants 500 g of dried and powdered flowers A. cyanophyllawere placed in a glass and 100 mL of methanol were added for extraction. This unit was immersed in a water bath and sonicated for 15 min (power 100W). After complete extraction, the extract was filtered through a filter paper (ashless filter paper, 12.5 cm) and evaporated to dryness using a rotary evaporator and a water bath at 60 C. The residue was dissolved in 5 mL of water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered through a 0.45 lmfilter that was compatible with organic solvents and was subjected to silica gel column chromatography eluting with (CH3)2O/CH3OH (9:1) to afford 3.95 g of isosalipurposide (extraction yield = 0.79%). 2.2.2. Acylation of cotton